A viúva do enforcado (Literatura Língua Portuguesa) (Portuguese Edition)
The indigenous character of the cossantes is now well established, thanks chiefly to the skilful and untiring re- searches of D. One of the earliest is quoted by Airas Nunez C. Solo ramo verde frolido Vodas fazen a meu amigo, E choran olhos d'amor. What first strikes one in this is its Oriental immobility. The second distich adds nothing to the sense of the first, merely intensifying it by repetition. The scanty Basque literature contains Professor Henry R.
Lang who also uses the words serranas — but see C.
Theophilo Braga had called them serranilhas — and Verkettimgslieder , Parallelstrophenlieder D. Carolina Michaelis de Vas- concellos , cantigas parallelisticas D. Carolina Michaelis de Vasconcellos and Snr. Nunes , chansons a ripSHtions M. Alfred Jeanroy. Cantos dualisticos, cantos de danza prima, and bailadas encadeadas have also been proposed. Cristobal de Castillejo, Madre, un caballero Que estaba en este cosso bailia.
In the Relacion de los fechos del mui magnifico e mas virtuoso senor el senor Don Miguel Lucas [de Iramo] mui digno Condestable de Castilla, p. Rodrigo Cota, in the Didlogo entre el Amor y un Viejo, has dangas y corsantes, and Anton de Montoro el Ropero asks un portugues que vido vestido de muchos colores if he is a can- tador de corsante v. General, ed. But it is unnecessary to go for a parallel to China. Verses 8, 9 of Psalm are very nearly a. The resemblance in Psalm , verses 17, 18, is still more marked : To him which smote great kings, For his mercy endureth for ever, And slew famous kings, For his mercy endureth for ever.
The relations between Church and people were very close if not always very friendly. The peasants maintained their ancient customs, and their pagan jollity kept overflowing into the churches to the scandal of the authorities.
Innumerable ordi- nances later sought to check their delight in witchcraft and mummeries, feasts and funerals the delight in the latter is still evident in Galicia as in Ireland and Wales. Men slept, ate, drank, danced, sang profane songs, and acted plays and parodies in the churches and pilgrimage shrines. The Church strove to turn their midsummer and May-day celebrations into Christian festivals, but the change was rather nominal than real. Especially was this the case in Galicia, since the great saint Santiago, who farther south as later in India rode into battle on a snow-white ' Translations of Chinese poems resembling the cossanies are given by Dr.
Theophilo Braga, C. Lang, C. A Proven9al poem with resemblance to a cossante is printed in Bartsch, p. Pilgrims from all countries in the Middle Ages came to worship at his shrine at Santiago de Compostcla. Thus the eyes of the whole province of Galicia as the eyes of Europe were directed towards the Church of Santiago in Jakobsland. The inhabitants of Galicia would naturally view their heaven-sent celebrity with pride and rejoice in the material gain.
They would watch with eager interest the pilgrims passing along the camino frances or from the coast to Santiago, and would themselves flock to see and swell the crowds at the religious services. A further characteristic of the cossante is that the z-sound of the first distich is followed by an a-sound in the second [ricercando ora il grave, ora Vacuto and this too maybe traced to a religious source, two answering choirs of singers, treble and bass.
Fidel Fita y D. Aureliano Fernandez-Guerra Madrid, , p. Deus, adjuva nos! But if born in the Church, the cossante suffered a transformation when it went out into the world. The rhythm of many of the songs in the Cancioneiros is so obtrusive that they seem to dance out of the printed page.
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The cossante Solo ramo would thus proceed, sung by ' the dancers dancing in tune ' : Verses 3 and 4 Vodas fazen a meu amigo amado Porque mentiu o desmentido perjurado E choran olhos d'amor, the first line of the third distich repeating the second line of the first and in the same way the first line of the fifth the second line of the third , in leixa-pren [laisser prendre corresponding evidently to the movements of the dance.
Augus- tine considered the dance to be a circle of which the Devil was the centre ; in real life the Devil was often replaced by a tree or by a mayo. Gil Vicente, Tambor em cada moinho. The parallelism and leixapren are present also in religious poems by Alfonso X : C. Nunes has noted that in motkrn peasant dances, accompanied with song, the dancers sometimes pause while the refrain is sung.
Thus we have the melancholy Celtic temperament, absorbed in Nature, acting on the forms suggested by an alien religion till they become vague cries to the sea, to the deer of the hills, the flower of the pine. The themes are as simple and monotonous — the monotony of snowdrops or daffodils — as the form in which they are sung. A girl in the gloom of the pine-trees mourning for her lover, the birds in the cool of the morn- ing singing of love, the deer troubling the water of a mountain- stream, the boats at anchor, or bearing away mens amores, or gliding up the river a sahor.
The amiga lingers at the fountain, she goes to wash clothes or to bathe her hair in the stream, she meets her lover and dances at the pilgrim shrine, she waits for him under the hazel-trees, she implores the waves for news of him, she watches for the boats pelo mar viir.
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The language is native to the soil, far more so, at least, than in the cantigas de amor and cantigas de amigo written under foreign influence. Despite its striking appearance to us now among sirventes senes sal in the Cancioneiro Colocci-Brancuti, it must be confessed that the early cossante of King Sancho has a somewhat meagre, vinegar aspect, and the genre could hardly have developed so successfully in the next half-century had it not been fixed in the country-side, ever ready to the hand of the poet in search of fresh inspiration.
It is possible to exaggerate the effect of war on the life of the peasant. Portugal in the twelfth century was only gradually and by constant conflict winning its territory and independence. It had no fixed capital and Court at which the Provengal poets cantigas de ledino. The word probably originated in a printer's error de ledino for dele dino in a line of Chrisfal : canton canto de ledino.
In the sense of the two refrains lies all the difference between the poetry of Portugal and Spain. But while king and nobles and the members of the religious and military orders were engaged with the [Moors to the exclusion of the Muses, so that they had no opportunity to introduce the new measures, the peasants in Galicia and Minho no doubt went on tilling the soil and singing their primitive songs.
In the thirteenth century Provengal poetry flourished in Portugal, but so monotonously that it failed to kill the older lyrics, and they reacted on the imported poetry. In the trite conventions with which the latter became clothed the cossante had a new oppor- tunity of life. Trohadores wearied by their own monotony, jograes wishing to please a patron with a novidade, had recourse to the cossante. The jogral wandering from house to house and town to town necessarily came into close touch with the peasants. Talented men among them, prompted by patrons of good taste, no doubt exercised the third requisite of a good jogral [doair' e uoz e aprenderdes hen, C.
These, developed and adorned according to his talent, he would introduce to the Court among his motz recreamens e prazers. When Joan de Guilhade in the middle of the thirteenth century complained that os trohadores ja van para mal C.
Alfonso X reproached Pero da Ponte for not singing like a Pro- vengal but, rather, like Bernaldo de Bonaval first half 13th c. King Dinis in the second half of the century viewed the cossante with such favour that he wrote or collected some of the most curious and delightful that we possess. Of Meendinho first half 13th c.
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This was a popular theme, but the two poets who seem to have felt most keenly the attraction of the popular poetry and to have cultivated it most successfully are Joan Zorro fi. The cossantes of Zorro, one of the most talented of all these singers, tell of Lisbon and the king's ships and the sea. In this series of barcarolas C.
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Martin Codax at about the same time was singing graceful songs of the ondas do mar of Vigo C. Thus he is scarcely even a name. There is a modem Peruvian poet Manuel Nicolas Corpancho Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Moogo from monachus. Chariiio is buried at Pontevedra, in the Franciscan convent which he founded. On the lips of his amz'g'a he places a touching cantiga de amigo C.
Love is in flower. He escaped the perils of the sea, the miii gran coita do mar C. His sea lyrics are only excelled by the enchanting melody of the poem C. Of the later poets Estevam Coelho, perhaps father of one of the assassins of Ines ti , wrote a cossante of haunting beauty C. King Dinis, having thrown wide his palace doors to these thyme- scented lyrics, would turn again to the now musty chamber of Provengal song C.
The reader or listener would easily complete them. His pastorela C. Riding along a stream he hears a solitary shepherdess singing and stays to listen. The refrain is identical in C. The fourth cossante we also have complete, a lovely harcarola by Joan Zorro C. Separata da Revista Lusitana, vol. Very few, if any, of the cossantes were anonymous, which only means that modern folk-lore was unknown; it was not the fashion to collectsongs from the lips of the people withoutulteriorpurpose. No drawing-room lyric, evidently : more likely to be sung in taverns ; composed perhaps by a knight like him of C.
Like the Provencal poet Guilherme Figueira who mout se fetz grazir. The cantiga de vildos was no such simple popular lyric, but rather a drinkers' song, picaresquely allusive, sung by a jogral who non fo horn que saubes caber entre Hs baros ni entre la bona gen but sang vilmen et en gens bassas, entre gens bassas per pauc d'aver Riquier , cantares de que la gente baja e de servil condicion se alegra Santillana. The cossante, on the contrary, came straight from field and hill into palace and song-book.
Probably Up the stream the boats came gliding Gracefully. All along the river-bent The fair maiden singing went Of love's dream : Fair to see the boats came gliding Up the stream. The women of Galicia have always been noted for their poetical and musical talent.
But whether any of the cossantes that we have in the Cancio- neiros is strictly of the people or not, their traditional indigenous character is no longer doubtful. It would surely be a most astounding fact had the Galician-Portuguese Court poets, who in their cantigas de amor reduced Provencal poetry to a colourless insipidity, succeeded so much better with the cossantes that, while the originals from which they copied have vanished, the imita- tions stand out in the Portuguese Cancioneiros like crimson poppies among corn.